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A similar project, the New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption (NESSIE), was designed as an independent project meant to augment the work of NIST by putting out an open call for new cryptographic primitives. While several new algorithms were found during the NESSIE process, no new stream cipher survived cryptanalysis.As a result, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project (e STREAM) was created, which has approved a number of new stream ciphers for both software and hardware implementation. It is termed "self-synchronizing" because the decryption process can stay synchronized with the encryption process merely by knowing how far into the n-bit keystream it is. Self-synchronizing stream ciphers calculate each bit in the keystream as a function of the previous n bits in the keystream.
One problem is error propagation; a garbled bit in transmission will result in n garbled bits at the receiving side.
One of Feistel's early papers describing this operation is "Cryptography and Computer Privacy" (Scientific American, May 1973, 228(5), 15-23).
Block ciphers can operate in one of several modes; the following are the most important: As an aside, the AES selection process managed by NIST was very public.
In general, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different ciphertext in a stream cipher.
The most common construct for block encryption algorithms is the Feistel cipher, named for cryptographer Horst Feistel (IBM).